Phase 3: Interpreting Information

Updated 5 years 10 months ago

Welcome to my Phase 3. The purpose of this phase is to store and interpret information I get from various sources. I categorized this massive amount of information by five categories depending on the sources. Then, I categorized relevant information together in paragraphs. For example, observations from one rehearsal will be in the same paragraph.

Background Information (from Phase 1):

Dongjing music is a type of music played in an ensemble. The ensemble consists of singers (chanters), brass, woodwind as well as stringed instruments. Smaller ensembles usually includes plucked and picked string instruments and a percussionist. Added color to the plucked stringed instruments are achieved by extended techniques such as trills. Vibrato is also common. Notation of the music is still written in ”简谱 (Jian Pu)“, or Simple Notation. [1]

One form of sung music, the "Bai tune", has three branches. The branches of singing are named after its geography. A lot of the branches have some specific traits to the singing. One example of this is the "Jian chuan" branch, which is Hexatonic and features a large range in its melodic composition (often with large interval skips of a sixth or an octave). Another one of the branches is the "Dali" branch, which is pentatonic and can be sung by either a man or a woman. It can also be sung combined, in which the male will always sing from the dominant, and the female from the tonic. A quite strict feature about this branch is that the female voice's first and fifth line always ends on the submediant, usually with a trill. [2] Some other Bai tunes are not entirely Bai tunes and have been influenced by outside culture over the years, such as the "Hou Shan tune". [5] Bai tunes are all sung in the local Bai language. Another form of sung music is the "Han tune" or "Geng Zi tune", which is sung entirely in mandarin. It is popular around Dali. Another form of singing is the "Jing Shu tune", which is sung during prayers. They are usually accompanied by religious percussion instruments and are usually sung in temples. [4] These tunes are often sang by young men and women in love. Sometimes, the two tune are combined when they sing to each other. [5]

Bai minority music can be traced back to before the Qin dynasty. [5]

The Bai minority is educated and Bai opera is heavily distinct. The pit orchestra, though previously only containing traditional instruments, have now developed to contain a larger orchestra that even incorporates some Western instruments. [3]

The "Chui Chui Qiang" is a special Bai minority drama. There are about 300 different scripts that are still performed, with han stories being predominant as the topic of the scripts. The history of the Chui Chui Qiang can be traced back to about 700 years ago, though many new scripts were produced in the 20th century. [7] Recently, because of the increasing popularity of the Peking Opera and other traditional Chinese opera forms, the Chui Chui Qiang is undergoing decline. [6]

Bai prose are written in a form called the "Shan Hua" form, which consists of eight (or seven) lines of words. If the prose contains 8 lines, the lines will contain 7775, 7775 words. If the line contains seven lines, then the word count will be 775, 7775.[2]

A famous song book of Bai minority music is the "Da ben qu". There are 116 books of Da ben qu, but only 95 of them can be found now. [6]

Information From 3-to-5's:

A lot of Bai music performed here in the village are not authentic and Bai music is becoming something of a lost culture. Most songs are sung in mandarin instead of the traditional Bai language. Bai opera is not performed at all inside the village. There are no actual theaters inside the village but sometimes DongJing musicians perform at the square. Traditional Bai groups have even started adopting Western popular music as part of their repertoire to appeal to the tourists.[9] People used to gather together and sing Bai tunes together. Sometimes they just hum and improvise. [10] There are ceremonies every 1st and 15th of the lunar calendar where people sing and chant.[8] 

Information From Local Contacts:

DongJing music is in fact a form of religious music, hence why Jing (经, Scriptures) part of the DongJing (洞经) music's name. A DongJing group usually consists of around 20 instruments including a wind section, a plucked string section, a bowed string section, and a percussion section. One of these instruments, the SanXian, is the primary instrument Mr. Zhao plays. The SanXian is a three stringed plucked instrument and is tuned with its lowest string A3, D4, then A4. This Sanxian was a small one. [11] The library book I have borrowed from the Linden Centre labels the SanXian as an instrument with the strings pitched G2, D3, and G3. The book refers to a larger SanXian.[14] Some techniques I have observed from Mr. Zhao's playing include occasional usage of vibrato (more up-and-down rather then the usual left-and-right), tremolos by quickly picking the string, and occasional use of glissando when switching from one position of a string to another. The glissandos are not marked in the Simple Notation score and I assume that it is a performance technique. [11] 

The Sanxian is split into two branches, the Han Sanxian and the Bai Sanxian. The Bai Sanxian usually contains a detailed carved dragon head at the tip of its fingerboard. There are also different ranges of the Sanxian. The body of the instrument is usually made out of Rosewood and a layer of snake skin is put on the body of th instrument for better resonance. Positions on the Sanxian is about as large as positions of the cello. Er Hus were also present at Mr. Zhang's place, the standard tuning of which being D4 then A4. I got a chance to try out the Er Hu. The material of the bow is similar to that of a violin/viola/cello/bass bow, with wood and horse hair. Rosin is used. What is different is that since the Er Hu is played with the hair between the strings, the side of the hair that connects to the frog of the bow is detachable. The bow is held in a manner slightly resembling that of a German double bass bow. One has to tighten the bow hair manually by spacing the hair away from the bow stick with his middle and fourth fingers. The thumb is on top the index finger supporting. The Er Hu is placed on the lap, with left side facing the body. Some bones (or now bone powder) are put on the head of the Er hu. The bowing for the Er Hu is very relaxed, almost entirely elbow motion. The strings for both instruments are made out of metal wire covered with silk, though Mr. Zhang has said that nylon is used. Gut was used for more ancient instruments. The material of these instruments are remarkably similar to their Western cousins, and I wonder if it is purely coincidental. The price of the instruments Mr. Zhang makes are determined by the quality of material. This range can be quite dramatic, such as the Er Hus that range between 1000 - 6000 RMB. The SanXian is a bit cheaper, starting from the hundreds. It takes at least 2 weeks of work if Mr. Zhang devotes a lot of energy into the creation of the instruments, but usually, since he does it more as a hobby, it takes 1~2 months. The current SanXian he is making took already 8 weeks, and an accident happened which the snake skin peeled. Though it does not affect the sound quality, it affects the aesthetics. He said that to repair it would not be an easy job. Mr. Zhang also mentioned that when making the Bai SanXian, the dragon head is the most time consuming part. When making instruments, he buys the strings and the original materials. He does not make Er Hu bows and just buys them. The dragon is symbolic for the Bai people and Mr. Zhang just views it as a decoration, since he is Christian. He was originally a wood carver in Dali Old Town but because of his passion for music decided to start making these instruments. The market for his instruments are usually large companies or musicians he knows well.[13] 

In a DongJing rehearsal, I took some notes of the repertoire and the orchestration of DongJing music. I took some notes on the timbre of each of the DongJing instruments, which in the rehearsal included several Er Hus, a Chinese flute, a Zhong Ruan (Middle Ruan), a Sanxian, and a Zhong Hu. On the timbre of the Er Hu, I took the notes of sounding "crisp and dry, shrill and nasal". It is slightly mellow, but in a different way from the how the viola's tone fits in the description. The Zhong Hu is like a combination of the Er Hu and the lower strings of the viola, and is mellower then the Er Hu. On the Chinese flute, I took the notes of its upper register timbre being very similar to that of a Western flute, though the lower registers of Chinese flute does not have the warm sound of the Western flute. The lower register of the Chinese flute sounds a bit like a recorder, and is like an extension of the timbre of its upper registers. The Sanxian is the warmest sounding of the instruments (though still not very warm) and has a rather resonating sound. [11, 16, 18] The Ruan, in contrast, is dry, weak, and sandy. [16] The Er Hu family (Er Hu, Zhong Hu, Da Hu) is not capable of making much articulation with the bow. However, through easily achieved control of the bowing speed as well as the pressure of the bow, it is able to make a lot of dynamic variations. [16, 18] Accents can also be made with quite ease through a sudden shift of the bow stroke. [18] Tremolo is one of its techniques and is usually done at the tip. Vibrato is also used. The Chinese flute is like the Western flute, which is capable of articulation differences by using tonguing. The Ruan and Sanxian are both able to perform a very fast tremolo. When placed within a group, the Chinese flute predominates in the timbre of the group. In some of the pieces, the role of the Sanxian is kind of like a walking bass, because of its steady repeated notes. [16]

Of the three pieces the group played, the first is called “苍洱欢歌 (Cang Er Huan Ge, The cheerful song of Cang Shan and Er Hai)", and it was written by a certain contemporary composer Mr. Ye. Its inspirations are Bai folk tunes, and is meant to be a scene of great jollity in this area. [16, 18] I got a good chance to observe the timbre changes with additions of instruments, as in the free atmosphere of the rehearsal musicians just walked in and joined. I therefore had the chance to hear the first piece in three different instrumentation settings: the first being only with the Er Hu, Chinese flute, and the Sanxian, the second with an addition of a Zhong Hu, and the last with the full ensemble: 1 Chinese flute, 2 Er Hus, 1 Zhong Hu, 1 Zhong Ruan, and 1 Sanxian. The piece of music starts with a flute solo and contains several usages of canonic devices. There was also a section that is harmonized entirely in parallel fourths. In general, this pentatonic piece centers around the first degree. When a Zhong Hu is added to the ensemble, the sound suddenly grew a lot thicker, because of the Zhong Hu doubling below an octave. The differences in timbre between 1 and 2 Er Hus are very vague, however. With a full ensemble, the Ruan is not very audible but as a interesting particle-like timbre to the music. [16] This piece opens with a perfect fifth from the plucked , there were little canonic sequences in the music, and there was also a passage, completely harmonized in perfect fourths. [18]

Most of the DongJing music scores are in Simplified Notation, and they are usually full scores. Since most of the music are monophonic or homophonic, the full scores are very simple. There is usually only one line of Simple Notation. When there are no special marks, that indicates a tutti. When there is a Soli or Solo, or if only parts of the ensemble is desired, then the composer would mark the instruments playing the melody before it begins (in a manner similar to changing clefs in Western Notation). Sometimes, if the music turns into more then one part and becomes more rhythmically or contrapuntally complex, the composer would add a new staff. The music usually scores with three parts in mind, “笛 (Di)”, “弦 (Xian)”, and "弹 (Tan)". They respectfully stands for "flute", "strings", and "plucked". In Mr. Zhao's ensemble, instruments that belong to "strings" are all the Hus, and the "plucked" are the SanXian and the Zhong Ruan. The "Flute" part is played by the Chinese Flute. The music usually don't specify a specific instrumentation, so the orchestration and sound of the music much depends on the ensemble itself. With an Er Hu, SanXian, and Chinese Flute, every part of "苍洱欢歌“ could be played. Of course, many groups play with more then these instruments, such as on the first rehearsal. All of this can be observed in the following photo of the score of "苍洱欢歌“. [16,18]

The second piece, "flower picking", is a Sichuan, Jiu Zhai Gou song that grew popular in the 50s. is more Aeolian and the implications could been seen in many parts of the melody. The music resembles the minor mode and the powerful and indicative E-A (V-I in aeolian) is very often used. The first phrase of the music contains two cadences of such. The music starts with a very brief tutti statement of the first theme, then switches to a bowed strings soli, which features syncopated rhythms. The plucked strings then repeat the soli. There were sequential elements in some part of the piece. The middle section of the piece is approached with a pounding rhythm in the plucked strings. The tempo slows down, and an elegiac melody in the Hu family is played, with another figure in the plucked strings serving as counterpoint. The middle section continues for a while, then, rather suddenly the first, livelier section returns. In the middle section, pitches not from the pentatonic scale is used: the seventh degree and a raised fourth degree. [16]

The atmosphere of the rehearsal is very relaxed and many musicians just come whenever they want. The musicians could play multiple instruments. It is quite obvious how the Hu players could play all of the Hus, but what surprised me was when the flute player started to play the Er Hu and the Zhong Hu player started playing the Ruan. There were instruments hanging from the wall, but most of the musicians' instruments are all stored in cases that are left overnight. The musicians spoke in the Bai dialect. When the other musicians entered they looked at us and asked who we were, but didn't make a big deal out of it. The musicians sometimes stop in the middle of the piece and start drinking tea. They also smoke a lot. Another observation is that the musicians are not very good at tuning. They do not have a very good sense of relative pitch and even after they get the strings in tune, they would retune it so that it goes out of tune. Tuning took a long time. When tuning, the flautist always plays the same figure, and the other players tune to him. Mr. Zhao also directs much of the tuning, and gives instructions to the other musicians as to how close they are to getting tuned. The rehearsal started at around 8:00 pm in Yan Jia Da Yuan, and when the rehearsal started there were only two players: Mr. Zhao and the flautist. Afterwards players eventually joined one by one, and the latest appeared almost half an hour late. On the first rehearsal, there were seven members present. [16] However, on the second, only five members attended. [18] By 9:45, which was when we left, the rehearsal was still going on. Mr. Zhao welcomed us and told us to go and "play with them" again. [16] On the second rehearsal I attended, the rehearsal lasted for about 2 hours, ending at around 10:15. [18] While Yan Jia Da Yuan requires 60 RMB of entrance fee the musicians just enter for free. They have a specific music room for rehearsals in the Yan Jia Da Yuan. [16, 18] Mr. Zhao said that recently a corporation bought the Yan Jia Da Yuan, but the corporation continued to allow Mr. Zhao and his DongJing group to stay for free. [18]

On the second rehearsal I attended, I was able to interact with the musicians a lot more. The musicians were very open to my presence, and when I asked if I could observe closely they gladly said yes. They are all very happy for those who are interesting in DongJing music. [18] For example, when I mentioned SAS Microcampus alumni Taylor H. (who, for her final product, learned the SanXian) to Mr. Zhao, he vividly remembered her and told me stories about her with great excitement. He exclaimed that it is hard to learn music like this in the city and said that in the city children only learn Western instruments. [11] In both rehearsals I attended,  a young man in about his twenties came into the rehearsal room and joined the elders. [16, 18] In the first rehearsal, the flautist handed him one of his many flutes as he came into the room, and later he played the Er Hu as well. The elders welcomed him. [16] During the second rehearsal, I learned from Mr. Zhao that he was an actor from the neighbor village who just went and played with them. The Er Hu player told me that this group has gathered since the 80s, and as members pass away and new members join, this group continues to happen. Many of the group's members are amateurs, such as the Er Hu player and the flautist. They learned their instruments in their youth and picked it up again after they have retired. [18] During the rehearsal, sometimes they recorded themselves and listened to the recording to figure out what improvements needed to be made. [16, 18] They were eager to improve, and when the Er Hu player learned that I played several Western instruments and studied composition, he told me to give suggestions to them. When I said I don't understand this music, they all laughed. They were a very friendly group and we really got to bond on the second rehearsal, when both sides opened up more. [18]

The repertoire of Mr. Zhao's Dongjing group is wide, ranging from traditional Dongjing pieces to Bai tunes, to even Peking Opera [18] and Western songs [12]. Mr. Zhao informed me that he obtained the scores of the pieces they are currently practicing ("苍洱荒歌", "采花 (Cai Hua)", etc.) from Xia Guan. Some of the other interesting pieces that I found in Mr. Zhao's score book are the traditional DongJing "原始腔 (Yuan Shi Qiang, Primitive Chant)“ and "天女散花 (Tian Nv San Hua, Heavenly Lady Spreads the Flowers)", and the Jian Chuan branch Bai tune "‘白’字歌 (Bai Zi Ge, 'Bai' text song)“. [18] Mr. Zhao, on our first meeting, showed me a book full of traditional DongJing music. I unfortunately did not take pictures of the book nor obtained it. From a brief overview, I have observed that the text for DongJing music usually contains 5 or 7 words per line. I have briefly looked at one such music accompanying the text and found no specific pattern as to the way the text is set. Some text are elongated for no apparent reason and there is no specific form to the music. [11]

In DongJing music, when played as religious music, has its rhythm and beat determined by the reciter (or singer) of the text. The book Mr. Zhao showed me contains music that is all monophonic. There is a specific procedure to when DongJing music is played in a religious circumstance, which is an initial percussion roll, followed by a loud gong hit, then six hits on a bowl. Then, the music begins. [11]

I heard and took notes of  a Dongjing group arrangement of 小桃红 (Xiao Tao Hong, Little red peach) at an evening Linden Centre concert. The piece began with a flute solo seeming unrelated to the rest of the music, followed by a San Xian solo by Mr. Zhao. The group then proceeded to play in unison for the rest of the piece. During the tutti, there isn't a lot of care for placement of the melody. The melody is limited and altered by the instrumental range and often (especially audible on the clear, piercing timbre of the Chinese Flute) the notes of the melody are raised or dropped by an octave when it gets out of an instrument's range. The plucked strings often played repetitions of notes held by the bowed strings and the Chinese flute. The Chinese flute also adds ornaments usually not played (or not easily audible) by the other instruments. There was also a percussion line in the piece, which consists of repeated simple bell strikes on the off beat. Another interesting observation is the frequency of retuning done by the 大胡 (Da Hu, a larger version of the Er Hu, with a lower range). The second piece played by the DongJing group also includes dancing (female dancers who also play percussion: Tambourine and a stick like percussion instrument used to hit the tambourine as well as make a bell-like sound on its own). The music itself, though also pentatonic, seems center on the sixth degree, hence bearing more resemblance to the minor key or Aeolian mode rather then the Ionian. It also features a more rhythmic and interesting percussion line. The third piece of the night is for the two plucked stringed instruments, the San Xian and the Middle Ruan (中阮, Zhong Ruan). I found this piece the most interesting, as it featured some extended techniques on the instruments. There were double stops on the open strings of the two instruments. The two instruments played again in unison, though sometimes they were an octave apart and other times were in exact unison. I am not sure of the reason. There was quite frequent use of glissando, presumably for more accurate shifting or to add ornamental effect. The cadence of the piece resolves to the supertonic. The fourth piece was a rhythmically interesting one, and there was a soli from the bowed strings, which produced a thick sound not unlike that of a chamber string group on the lower parts of its range. The last piece of the concert was jingle bells. [12] Xiao Tao Hong is a traditional DongJing piece. [16] The other pieces require validation of status. [12] 

Ms. Yang is a Linden Centre kitchen staff member, and she has compiled a songbook. During my interview with her, she showed me her songbook and taught me a traditional Bai song "白月亮, 白姐姐 (Bai Yue Liang, Bai Jie Jie, White Moon, White Sister)“, which is a love song. Most Bai songs are either love songs, or are about the geographical location and hospitality of the Bai people. An example is "大理埧子好风光". The text of this song first talks about the geographical locations of Dali, mentioning the three pagodas as well as the eighteen rivers. Then, the music moves on to talk about the love life of Bai youngsters. The story is quite interesting. It talks about how a Bai girl has to be cautious when she goes on the streets with her boyfriend in fear of her parents. There was a little figure in the text, "啊口衣(yi)哟呵", which Ms. Yang said serves throat-clearing purpose. The text to this piece is in two stanzas each with four lines, with a 7-7-7-5 word patter. I therefore infer that this is a piece in "Shan Hua" form. Most pieces in Ms. Yang's songbook are notated in Simplified Notation, with text beneath the staff. "白月亮, 白姐姐“ is supposed to be sang twice, first in Bai and the second time in Han. Since the Bai dialect does not have a written text, the Bai text to this song is written in sounding Mandarin. This form of this piece is first an opening “过”, an instrumental passage played before, between, or after the singer's line, part A, middle “过”, and part A1. There are several interesting points about this piece. The first is that its opening "过" is almost identical to that of another song in the songbook, "喜洲是个好地方 (Xi Zhou Shi Ge Hao Di Fang, Xizhou is a great place)“. Ms. Yang told Mr. T and I that "喜洲是个好地方“ was written after "白月亮, 白姐姐“ and it took melodies from other places. Another interesting part is its melodic construction. The second bar of the vocal line was elongated into a 3/4 (the piece is in 2/4). The only difference between part A and A1 are its first three bars and its text. Whereas the first line of the song, "白明弯支白几几 (or "白月亮啊白姐姐“, in Han)" was set to 7 beats in part A, in part A1, before the same melody started, there was an inserted pitch on the downbeat of the first bar. The melody that "白明弯支白几几" was set to begins on the second beat of part A1. This is most interesting, for even though part A1 does not have any metric changes, it still sounds irregular because the note on the downbeat rather sounds like an upbeat to the melody. Another observation is that most of the intervals in the melody progresses by pentatonic step. For example, there are two total leaps in the second melodic phrase. [17]

Ms. Yang told us that when she was young, many songs were learned from the radio and songs are also learned from family and friends. During that time, she was forbidden to sing some of these Bai songs and sang only "红歌 (Hong Ge)"s, which are revolutionary songs or songs praising the reign of Mao. She said that when her parents' generation proposed, they sang some of these love songs. During the revolution, the music teacher taught such "红歌"s in school. She also used to go to the movies a lot, and many songs in her songbook are from movies, both "红歌" and non-"红歌"'s. Sometimes, when singing a Bai song, the last little phrase would be repeated an octave higher for demonstration of one's singing abilities. [17]

Mr. Zhao used to work for a a theatre and they used to perform some traditional Bai Operas. [11] Ms. Yang said that a while ago, in the time when she was a teenager, there used to be a theatre platform on Sifang Jie. Musicians would perform different styles of Chinese Operas as well as put up performances. The theatre is gone now. [17] Mr. Zhao described the Da Ben Qu, which is a monodrama, with a reciter-singer acting as all the roles, accompanied by an instrumentalist. [11]

Information from Library:

Some pieces of DongJing music are homophonic, with Pipa (or Ruan) and Sanxian usually on an accompaniment line. Many DongJing musicians in XiZhou are able to play more then one instruments. DongJing music in XiZhou is relaxed and serves as the musician's social gatherings. Dongjing music has developed to include what is outside of the traditional repertoire. Musicians know some pieces by heart and can join one another when playing pieces they are familiar with. [15]

Tunings for the middle Ruan is G2, D3, G3, and D4, and tunings for the middle Hu is G3, D4. [14]

Answers to Previous Questions (from Phase 1): 

1) Since Bai music have been influenced by music of another minority culture, have there been cases where Western music also influenced it?

Music in Xizhou have definitely become influenced by Western music by some degree. Chinese popular music is fairly widespread in Xizhou, and that itself is based on a Western system. Dongjing music groups have also adopted Western "classics" into their repertoire. The composition "苍洱荒歌" seems to come from a hand familiar with Western music since it features some very strange techniques. I would be curious to see if there are any more Western-influenced but "Chinese styled" compositions.

2) Have there been classically trained composers interested in Bai music and therefore incorporated Bai elements in their composition?

The composer of "苍洱荒歌“ seems to be such a case.

4) Are there any elements in Bai music that are considered "avant-garde" in Western music?

The metric shift in "白月亮,白姐姐" isn't really "avant-garde", since metric shifts have been used in much of romantic literature. However, it is definitely interesting. Opposed to quite the strict and metric classical Western poetry, the 7-7-7-5 of Shan Hua form is also quite unique.

5) Has there been any forms of music in Xizhou that focuses more on the vertical rather then the horizontal line?

Out of most of the pieces I've seen (Dongjing music, music from Ms. Yang), there isn't such a thing as the vertical line. Out of the pieces that do feature more then one line, the two lines are usually either quite independent of each other or actually monophonic in disguise. Therefore, I conclude there aren't forms of music in Xizhou that focus more on the horizontal line.

6) What are the basic rhythms of music in Xizhou?

Basic rhythms of music in Xizhou

8) How popular is traditional music in Xizhou? How much do the new generation know about traditional music in Xizhou?

Surprisingly, Ms. Yang mentioned that most of her children know a lot of Bai tunes. At the Dongjing rehearsal, a young man also joined the elders. Traditional music in Xizhou is way more popular then I thought it would be. Mr. Zhao said that there is a decline in how much of the younger generation knows about traditional music in Xizhou, but I would say that the ratio of the younger generation that knows about it is still fairly large.

9) How often is secular music performed compared to religious music?

Mr. Zhao said that his group doesn't perform Dongjing music as a religious music often, and they treat Dongjing music as a fun activity.

10) What are the differences between religious music in Xizhou and Western religious music?

Western religious music is serious and often extremely grand in size (the War Requiem, masses, etc.). It often features chorales and most of them and liturgical. Dongjing music, as a religious form, is much more simpler and smaller. There is only one reciter and the text is drawn from a variety of sources.

Dropped questions:

3) Have classical composers ever scored for Bai instrument groups (Dongjing music)?

Dongjing music is more a style of music then a specific group. In compositions for a Dongjing group, there also aren't specifications for instrumentation. So, I decided to drop this question.

7) Are Bai theatre works frequently performed in theater in big cities?

This question became irrelevant as I did not acquire much information on Bai theater music. I decided to drop this question. 


1. Online: Ethan T. Inquiry project: the importance of Dongjing music,, accessed April 1st, 2014

2. Online: Baidu Baike: 白族音乐,, accessed April 1st, 2014

3. Online: Baidu Baike: 白剧,, accessed April 3rd, 2014

4. Online: 白族音乐,, accessed April 7th, 2014

5. Online: 白族音乐的历史及其形式分析,, accessed April 7th, 2014

6. Online: 白族传统文化的内涵与传承,, accessed April 7th, 2014

7. Online: Baidu Baike: 吹吹腔,, accessed April 7th, 2014 

8. Andrew. Personal interview conducted by Brandon Q., 22 April 2014

9. Ye Lin. Personal interview conducted by Brandon Q., 22 April 2014

10. Mr. Yang. Personal interview conducted by Brandon Q., 22 April 2014

11. Mr. Zhao. Personal interview conducted by Brandon Q., 24 April 2014

12. Observations by Brandon Q. from a DongJing concert on 24, April 2014

13. Mr. Zhang, Personal interview conducted by Brandon Q., 28, April 2014

14. Yong Kang, Zhou, Zhongguo Mingzu Qiyue Hezou Quji, Shanghai educational published, July 2002

15. Text by an unamed training ethnomusicologist who stayed at the Linden Centre.

16. Observations by Brandon Q. from a DongJing rehearsal on 29, April 2014

17. Ms. Yang, Personal interview conducted by Brandon Q., 6, May 2014

18. Observations and conversations by Brandon Q. from a DongJing rehearsal on 6, May 2014


I have gathered quite a bit of information here in phase 3 and feel ready to move on. In Phase 4, I will be planning on how to report and share this information. Since I have quite a bit of information as well as music samples, I feel like I am ready to move onto Phase 4.

My name is Brandon. I am 14 years old and I was born in Beijing. I spent most of my life in Shanghai, but I have been mostly exposed to an American community. I compose and I have a strong interest in Chinese folk music and culture. After the experience in XiZhou, I have collected samples of folk material and analyzed them in terms of melodic, harmonic, formal, and rhythmic structure, as well as learned about the history and current status of Bai Minority music. The experience was a great one and I wish the best of luck to future participants.