Phase 3: Interpreting Information

Updated 1 year 6 months ago

In Phase 3, I will be accumulating all of my research in here before and during my Xizhou trip. Previously in Phase 0, I have chosen my topic while in Phase 1 I have activated prior knowledge and came up with questions that will guide my research. 

Background Information (from Phase 1)

My project will be focusing on the beliefs the world and villagers have of TCM, therefore I will be mainly focusing on the basic beliefs of TCM while comparing TCM and WM. 

The Basics of TCM: Traditional Chinese medicine goes back for over 2500 years, it had originated from the philosophy of Yinyangism and was eventually absorbed by Daoism.[1]. Traditional Chinese Medicine contains a wide arrange of different types of healing methods. Many of these methods are "natural" and often involve getting the "energy" (Qi) to flow smoothly again throughout the human body [1]. Qi was not developed from philosophy, instead of in the beginning, it stood for air in Mandarin[7]. It was believed that Qi is the beginning of life's substance[1]. Qi is also the substance that controls the mind, therefore when the Qi flow was disrupted, diseases would come about because the mind was not working properly[7]. Qi was invisible and took forms of particles and is ever changing throughout the body[7].  Other methods and beliefs date back to ancient Chinese philosophy about the balancing of two sides (Yin and Yang)[1,7]. Yin and Yang represent the sunny and shady sides of a hill[7l. Yin literally means shadow while Yang means sun, such as in "Tai Yang". While these two forces counteract each other, they both are dependent on each other[7]. If both sides were unbalanced it was believed that the mind was be distorted and cannot function properly causing diseases in the body. Finally, there is the theory of the five elements[7]. The theory of the five elements is extremely complicated so I will not be diving too far into this topic. However, it mainly focuses on the 5 most important organs of the human body (liver, heart, spleen, lungs, and kidney) and relating it to the world around us. For example, the heart is connected with "fire"[7]. This theory helps dictate what ingredients will often go into the concoction (a form of treatment that will be explained later on in the paragraph)[7]. The most common approaches of Traditional Chinese Medicine are Herbalism (herbs, animal products, and minerals combined to create tea, capsules, liquid extracts, granules, or powder), Acupuncture (a stimulation of various points on the body to get "Qi" flowing smoothly throughout the body again), and Tai Chi (mind and body practice involving body movements)[1]. Overall, TCM's ultimate goal was to balance Yin and Yang using natural causes to make the body and mind to feel free again. TCM's effect when used is often relatively slow compared to WM, however, this speed of healing is often praised for being natural, unlike WM. Traditional Chinese medicine is still mainly used in the rural areas of China, however, in populated cities, Western medicine is often recommended over TCM. 

American Exposure and Reaction to TCM: TCM had stayed in the Asian regions for centuries was brought to America in the 19th century, however, its existence was barely known until 1971. American usage of TCM tripled from 1997-2007 because with modern medical developments, people begin to look for more natural and experienced medicine[2]. However, TCM is still widely challenged by Western culture because the research on it is quite minimal. Western medicine believes TCM is not very reliable because it is hard to research the ideas of very complicated and very different from Western culture[2]. They often challenge that even though it may be antique, the methods are still not safe for public usage[7]. They claim the philosophies of TCM is impossible as life is not perfect as in the real life, Western culture believes that these ideas are too old and can not be relied upon[8]. Western culture also attacks that philosophy cannot be applied to medicine, especially targeted at the theory of Yin and Yang[9].They claim the only reason why TCM has not been removed is that of the Chinese government controlling the information flow in China. With the case of Zhang Gongyao who had petitioned to remove TCM from the government supported healthcare, even armed 10,000 signatures, he was still ignored, even further Zhang was prevented from receiving his salary and lecturing other students[8]. They also believe developing medicine from experience, which is how TCM is developed, is not safe and is more of a gamble[9]. Western culture often also challenges the history of TCM and how it is evolving currently. For example, Western medicine challenges the evolution of TCM after the Opium wars as Western scholars believe that TCM had exploded to recover some of the pride for the Chinese[8]. Or when during the Cultural Revolution, doctors were forced to use TCM else they would have their homes ransacked and careers ruined[8]. TCM is also challenged for its damage to the environment as many concoctions require animal parts[8]. Western culture often advises citizens to not replace TCM for health care and instead use it as a complimentary way of healthcare[2]. The FDA generally accepts TCM as dietary supplements, the concoction is only challenged if the concoction is proven to be a type of drug[2]

The Basics of WM: Western medicine had originated in European countries and did not come from a philosophy unlike TCM[6]. Western Medicine focuses on determining the illness from the symptoms and solving the illness from the symptoms[3,6]. Western medicine, unlike TCM, does not mean that it is medicine from the Western culture, instead, it means the medicine is "science-based"[3,6]. Western medicine adheres to rigorous science checks and processes before it is released to the market. Therefore, Western medicine is often more effective when it comes to treating diseases[6]. Safety is also expected within Western medicine and is often debated such as the safety of vaccines a common procedure in Western medicine[3,6]. This is different from TCM because TCM often comes from culture and is not very often challenged or goes through rigorous checks. Western medicine has a variety of procedures such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and more[3]. Doctors, therapists, and healthcare professionals all use Western medicine for patients in the Western world[6]

 

Information From 3-to-5's 

Mr. Tafel

  • Eastern medicine and Western medicine in Xizhou do not have any hard borders and it is becoming more and more mixed.[10]
  • Xizhou citizens believe people should not sit on hot stone else they gain diarrhea.[10]

Mr. Chen

  • Most information about Xizhou passed down through peers or parents.[12]
  • A lot of medicine consumed are home remedies and not pre-made/premixed for the consumers.[12]

Ms. B

  • Most medical training happens outside of Xizhou, younger generations choose to study at Kunming, Dali, etc.[11]

Information From Local Contacts

Mr. Chen[13,15]

Although Mr. Chen studies acupuncture, he owns and runs a two-year-old coffee shop on the road to the Linden Center. He originated from Hunan but moved here 4 years ago. Despite being quite young, he appears to be very knowledgeable about the inner workings and the surroundings. Through our conversations, I have learned and changed some of my beliefs due to his strong persuasion (not just about medicine). He also has western culture habits (maybe even perspectives) because he works with coffee/cafes so much. In the beginning, Mr. Chen was planning to study economics at university, however, when he was the only Starbucks application accepted, he fell in love with coffee. He worked at Starbucks for a while before going on and learning even more about coffee in Hunan. Eventually, he decided to start his own coffee shop (every single thing within Pessoa was designed by him). He accepted life within Xizhou to relax and enjoy a peaceful and quiet life. To this day, he does acupuncture for fun with only hopes that it will become a hobby later on in life. 

Conversation

  • There is no clear answer which type of medicine is better, each has its own advantages and disadvantages
    • Traditional Chinese Medicine
      • Slow effect, but safer and less negative harms
    • Western Medicine
      • Fast effect, brings more negative effects and has a larger risk (you are unclear what you consuming)
        • Best used within an emergency or big critical medical conditions
  • Traditional Chinese Medicine is still developing to this day
    • A recent acupuncture has developed to include the ears (not just the torso)
    • Medicine is developed through testing, they focus on the result instead of the treatment reasoning
  • Traditional Chinese Medicine takes a long time to learn and must take a test at the end
  • Believes Traditional Chinese Medicine should be mixed with Western medicine to achieve the best results
    • Believes refusing to let someone take either type of medicine is immoral
    • Believes in the end, no matter what type of medicine it is, it should just heal you
      • The basis should be natural
    • For example, during acupuncture, sometimes they may take an x-ray first
  • Older generations and Xizhou citizens tend to appreciate and prefer TCM more than younger generations
  • Health classes within public education are incredibly rare
    • The government is in control of the education, thus it promotes academic studies more 
    • Most health knowledge is passed down through families
      • Believes this type of information transmission is unsafe and may result in harms
  • Medicine is consumed in different ways
    • Direct consumption
      • Usually found in hospitals, TCM division
      • TCM shops may also prescribe herbs for direct consumption
    • Mixed consumption
      • Put into tea or food
      • Majority of the herbs within TCM

Pharmacy[14]

The pharmacies were organized in a similar to WM fashion. The medicine was to be taken by the pharmacists and distributed according to the complaints of the consumers. The customers could ask for preferences, however, normally the pharmacists are the ones in charge. The pharmacies seemed to contain minimal TCM herbs (at least ones that were in view or out on the front) and instead seemed to advertise the TCM and WM mixtures instead. The medicines were all sorted and labeled by their type and use, thus making it easier for the pharmacists to make medicine prescriptions. 

Conversation

  • Prepared TCM is more popular and common
    • Regular TCM is too complicated/hard/long to use
      • Is popular for its natural side effects
    • Western Medicine is in second place for the quick effect
  • Diagnosis is from discomfort
    • The pharmacy also must test different types of medicine if the patient is unsure about the problem
  • Pharmacy workers worked with both types of medicines (must learn the course and take exams)
  • Pharmacy attracts a good variety of people
  • Xizhou normally deals with smaller diseases (flu, fever, etc.)
  • Education checks are not strict (one of the workers never went to university)
  • Around 100 visitors per day
  • They view new modern pharmacies as the best
    • The place is organized like a western medical shop
    • Has records of medicine
    • Can place orders and then pick up medicine later
  • TCM shop often needs a doctor prescription for diseases
  • Some of the herbs can be consumed directly, some cannot

Ms. Linden[16]

Ms. Linden is the mother of two university boys. She used to study on how to be a nurse within the US. However, she has already lived in Xizhou for around 10 years despite being a foreigner. Thus, I went to converse with her to learn more about her thoughts on the medicine in Xizhou when she has heavy Western influences on her. 

  • Western medicine should be used to treat problems that are non-situational and have unpleasant symptoms
    • Fever
  • Traditional Medicines should be used to treat smaller problems that can have many different causes
    • Runny nose
    • Sore throat
  • Diseases within Xizhou are normally small
    • More critical diseases are mainly just breathing problems (90% is caused by asthma) and injuries
  • The public in general can tell the difference between WM, TCM, and the TCM/WM mix
  • WM is better due to the heavy challenges and medical/science checks on it
    • Also results in faster effects and easier consumptions
  • TCM is unregulated thus being a possible market scam
    • Sellers are always profit motivated, therefore sometimes they may stretch the truth
    • Websites or other sources almost always contain biased information as well
  • Most information in Xizhou is passed down through families and friends
    • Chinese government provides very basic health and medical classes
    • Medical knowledge is normally very situational because a lot of is based on experience
  • Believes TCM probably will not die
    • impossible to have a complete medical shift
    • is also more beneficial to have diverse medicine
    • TCM's placebo effect (belief that one will get better) is sometimes better than the unknownness/distrust of WM
    • It may just be not as popular
  • Western medicine is more popular in Xizhou
    • More pharmacies than TCM shops (9-3)
  • Older generations have also tended to use WM more than TCM
    • time saving mainly

Mr. Linden[17]

  • Believes TCM should be freely used (no force usage or opposition)
    • People should only be benefited
  • Loss of medical knowledge is worth it if it develops better (more medically correct, easier to consume, upgraded effect, etc.)
    • Authentic TCM is too old to be scientific and safe
    • America lost its apothecary methods, but it still is doing well
  • Traditional TCM should still be preserved to a certain degree
    • In the end, it only matters if it works

Mr. Yang[18]

Mr. Yang is a retired childcare doctor. Throughout his 52 years of medical experience, he has mainly dealt with many smaller diseases. Despite the common popularity to use TCM for uncritical diseases, he still believes in using western medicine. The habit may have been built through the cultural revolution, he said that chairman Mao had promoted the use of western medicine (new methods) thus he ended up studying western medicine more. He had studied medicine in Kunming (capital city of Yunan) but eventually moved to Xizhou to live with his wife. Now he has two children, a daughter and a son, with his daughter doing an internship in medicine in Taipei. Most of his medical studies had come from during his schooling (a contradiction to many earlier claims) and he worked 20 years in a hospital before starting his own childcare center. After 32 years, he retired and now enjoys fishing along Erhai. His word of advice to anyone who decides to study medicine is, "Be careful, never rush, one blunder could end another's life." 

Conversation (facts and opinions)

  • Prefers Western medicine 
  • Believes TCM is based too heavily on experience 
  • Learned WM during cultural revolution
    • Learned for about 3 years in school, 2 years later on
      • Did not learn too much from the family
    • Needed to take exam to become certified doctor.
    • Started in a local hospital
  • Knows TCM but does not like to use it
    • Believes TCM is way too slow for his preference
  • Believes TCM will not die because of the natural factor
  • Xizhou faces a lot of small health problems 
  • Big health issues often just end up in the hospital
  • Believes many TCM methods are still relevant and useful
    • There must be a reason for why TCM has lived on for almost 3000 years
      • Much better than the 100-200 year of WM
    • Acupuncture is still popular and useful

Hospital

The hospital at first seemed to promise similar views as the pharmacies and public did so far. Many of the signs seemed to promote very Western views on medicine. It had a walkway throughout the hospital that claimed it would provide cheaper medicine, more science behind it, a more durable and storable medicine, move away from TCM, and more safety and reliability. Even the hospital seemed to be organized in a very Western style. Just like the pharmacies, every single room was labeled and designed similarly as well. The rooms contained many posters showing Western diagnosis and methods. The hospital's teams were also organized in a hierarchy, with one team leader. The storage room for all the herbs were all packaged and labeled as well with its date, usage, and product name. The TCM wing seemed to only hold a small section of the hallway. Overall, it felt the hospital seemed to be promoting Western medicine/methods/values over Traditional Chinese medicine. I had a quick conversation with their lead doctor for the TCM wing. Their lunch break only ended at 1:30 thus I only had 10 minutes to converse with him. 

Doctor Yang (TCM division)[19]

  • Believes TCM basics are not very complicated/hard to learn
    • Only the deeper knowledge becomes incredibly complicated
  • Mainly uses TCM (even for his own health)
  • Argues TCM is much more beneficial for slow and small diseases
    • Does not have as many side effects as WM
  • TCM is still very popular within many cities and villages
  • Mainly sells authentic TCM
    • still may sell TCM and WM mixture
  • TCM is often not used for critical situations
    • the effects takes too long to activate
    • Too slow to consume although it is more comfortable and easier
  • Believes TCM is not developing as well in China
    • New methods do not seem as useful
    • Korea and Japan have been developing better methods
      • Probably will not catch up to China because China already has such a big lead

Doctor Dong (WM division)[21]

  • Learned medicine for 4 years
    • All mainly in university
    • One of his family members was doctor, so he followed
  • Only knows basic TCM
    • Is actually interesting in TCM and wants to learn it
  • Believes WM is best for critical situation
    • Does admit that sometimes WM just minimizes/blocks the problem
    • Only TCM truly will solve the root cause
    • WM is more efficient
  • WM is more popular than TCM
    • appealing to young people
    • Easier to intake saving a lot of time
  • WM has many different methods to for a problem
  • Government likes TCM to have more development
    • wants to set up own form of dominant medicine
  • WM has better diagnosis
    • TCM too heavy on experience
  • TCM will always have support
    • Long history
    • Heavy tradition
    • Natural factor
    • Less side effects
  • WM and TCM sometimes have similar methods of curing
  • Mix TCM still counts as TCM because the ingredients are the same, it is just easier to consume
  • WM sometimes can not cure diseases TCM can (and vice versa)
  • TCM is strong against slow and strong diseases
  • WM is more expensive than TCM

Traditional Chinese Medicine Shop[20]

The Traditional Chinese Medicine Shop provided many contradicting points against many of the earlier contacts I have spoken to. Their shop was laid in a fashion that kept the authentic and true TCM herbs in the center while leaving the more processed versions along the outer walls. All the herbs were labeled but only with the name of it this time. The owners could explain how each of the herbs worked, however, it was expected that the customer would already have a general idea of what he/she wanted. Another interesting difference was that he learned most of his information from experience and usage of the medicine. Many of the herbs he had knowledge about was because either he had used it when he was young with his family or that he had later "discovered" it and then used it to learn more about the experience and uses of it. Some of the herbs found there seemed to also be found in everyday food such as honey, hongzhao, etc. This would even further reveal how TCM is not necessarily just taken as a separate "medicine" and is often just incorporated into the diet of the local people to keep them healthy. (However, the owner did mention there were no such "vitamins" in TCM.) 

  • Believes TCM is better than WM
    • Argues that it is cheaper to buy TCM than WM
      • Because WM takes so much processing/testing it may be too expensive
      • Can get a big bag of TCM herbs versus a small box of WM
        • TCM price is affected by growth place, growing method, harvest method, age of harvester, organic/industrial, etc. 
    • WM can be corrupted
      • General public does not know how the medicine works
      • Only doctor prescribes the medicine
    • Safer, especially in the side effects
      • Failed TCM prescriptions does not result in critical harm
      • WM often results in more serious problems when the medicine is wrong
        • WM only has quicker results
    • Argues all medicine solves problem without truly knowing why, thus TCM is not worse than WM in science loss
      • argues TCM is just hard to study through science
        • Effects can only be seen through feeding mice (not reliable)
  • Says it is mainly older people who use TCM
    • Residents normally know what to buy themselves
    • Sometimes will prescribe medicine for customer
  • China does not seem to discourage TCM
    • Pushing for more science based medicine
    • Wants to undo cultural/history based medicine
    • TCM is still developing though
  • TCM is constantly changing
    • No set rules/procedures
      • Many different solutions to one problem
    • Most of TCM diagnosis/prescription is based on experience
      • Guess and check
    • TCM is very complicated
      • many considerations to take in when diagnosing
        • TCM figures out the problem's cause and solves it through that
        • Mainly done through experience
      • WM is simple and just shows evidence to prove disease
    • TCM can be used to treat big diseases, humans just have not discovered/put effort in to figure it out
  • WM weakens the overall health of the human
    • WM just helps the human body fight the disease
      • Weakens immune system
    • WM only stops the problem, does not solve it
  • TCM mixed with WM is better development for both sides
  • Never had to truly take a TCM class
    • Learned through experience of handling and reading
  • Authentic TCM is complicated to use
  • There are many stories behind the discovery of medicines

Mr. Li[22]

Mr. Li was not originally from Xizhou and instead moved in, later on, I went to converse with him to find out more about younger and outside views on medicine and not just the traditional views of it.

  • Mainly uses WM (even for small problems)
  • Never used TCM before
    • rarely gets sick
  • Has basic understanding of difference
    • WM just stops/minimizes the problem quickly
    • TCM actually solves the problem by curing the root of it because it is natural and made from plants
  • Can not tell the difference between WM and TCM/WM mix
  • Gets medicine from Pharmacy
    • rarely uses a hospital/doctor
  • Never had a true health/medical class from K-12
    • only had basic assembly
    • Mainly learned through family and experience
  • Believes family/experience should teach the user
  • Mainly contracts small diseases
    • WM is easy to take and fast effect
    • Other time just does not take medicine and lets immune system work
  • Serious slow diseases should be cured with TCM
  • Family uses both TCM and WM
  • Would use TCM is it guaranteed results
  • Internet/television ads mainly support WM
    • TCM only has local human advocacy
  • TCM still will stay alive because China has too many division for it to all die
  • TCM is worth to protect for the culture value
  • TCM is not losing supporters
    • Age does not affect the support value
    • Only the distributors choose the amount of support
    • Usage rates should only be based on the results
  • WM medicines sometime have TCM basis
  • Believes TCM and WM are 50:50

Mr. Xu

Although my conversation with Mr. Xu was on the short side, he provided the most insight into the uses in TCM. He believed that the future of TCM grows because it actually works (otherwise it wouldn't have been around for so long), especially in America where many of the problems cannot be defined by science (at least not yet), thus the popularity of TCM will grow. Thus, he explained, if we were the put the amount of popularity of TCM on a graph, it would be almost linear as more and more light gets shined onto TCM and not just the science-based WM. When I presented the wavy graph line (I predicted that the popularity rates of TCM would rise and then fall, he argued that this effect wouldn't happen because the natural factor isn't the strongest factor, in the end, it still does come down to effect.) 

  • Ever since he came to Xizhou, diseases have been rare
  • Argues we should care about costs and side effects
  • Can not assume that TCM is cheaper than WM
    • medicine is too complicated to make generalized statements
  • TCM can solve conditions undetectable by science
    • headache for example
  • WM is fast and has a stronger science basis thus fixing the problem better
  • TCM has less effects and it solves the root problem better
  • Learned most of his medical information through his work with medical machines
  • K-12 no health classes
  • Believes experience will always teach you what to use for medicine
    • if you do not learn, the effects of it will still teach you

Answers to Previous Questions (from Phase 1)

Influences

1. Which type of medicine is more advertised and promoted or opposed and demoted?
WM is promoted more to the public in Xizhou with the larger amount of WM distributors (more pharmacies than TCM stores), even the hospital has promoted WM (at least their standards) by turning the center of Xizhou hospital into a gallery of signs filled with Western medical views. TCM seems to be demoted especially within the hospital due to the lack of available different TCM divisions, especially near the entrance. 

2. What does the public education teach about healthcare and medicine?
There is a distinct lack of medical/health classes due to the fact that the Chinese government does not actually prioritize health as one of their standards, most of the early learning comes from family influence. It is only until university where many people spend 4-5 years studying one side of medicine and then starting off in a hospital. 

3. How does medical information pass down outside of formal education?
A lot of the other information seems to come from experience in Xizhou (of course another good portion comes from the internet). A lot of TCM information came from family traditions eventually imprinting the habits/information into the children of the family. 

Beliefs and Perspectives

4. What are the views about medicine (Western and Chinese) of the professionals (Pharmacy owners, doctors, etc.)?
The professionals are a bit generally more supportive of TCM (even the WM division agrees). This is because they both acknowledge the more effective health benefits of TCM, however, they do also believe that efficiency should normally be prioritized in front of effectiveness. Thus, in general, they still believe WM should be used more as a universal medicine. 

5. What type of awareness between Western medicine and Chinese medicine is found within different generations of citizens? 
There is a strong understanding of the difference between pure WM and TCM, however, the TCM pills seem to have been able to disguise themselves as WM. It is only when the ingredients are looked at, that one may be able to kind of understand. It is hard to truly tell the ingredients of WM and TCM because the public often lacks knowledge about the inner-workings of medicine. 

Usage

6. When are either type of medicines used?
WM is used when it is in a serious and critical situation due to the quick healing effect it brings, however it holds too many side effects for it be better than TCM when dealing with small and common diseases. 
 

7. What type of diseases does Xizhou have to deal with the most?
Xizhou faces many different small diseases mainly, this is because the development of Xizhou quite behind compared to many other modern cities which focuses on more critical diseases  Thus, the Xizhou hospitals are often equipped in similar fashions as well causing many citizens having to go to Kunming to get critical treatment. 

8. How do the citizens obtain the medicine? Do they need a prescription or is it "off the shelf"?
Pharmacists usually prescribe medicine (there is no need for specific training to become one, however). In TCM stores, the herbs are laid out in fashions where customers choose what they want and need to take (sometimes after receiving a prescription from a TCM doctor). 

Growth and Future

9. Are more TCM methods still being introduced today?
Yes, TCM is not a dead medicine or method and people are still experimenting new ways of healing from acupuncture to herbs. However, in China especially, the progress made for TCM is slow because even with more governmental support for TCM, the public interest slows down with newer generations coming in and only end up caring about speed and efficiency. 
 

10. Is Western medicine influencing and changing some of the TCM methods?
Yes, many of the TCM herbs are now being converted into WM pill forms which result in a quicker effect but with more side effects. Also, pill forms of TCM result in a quicker consumption and easier transportation. However, this result does raise the price due to the heavier processing.

Sources: 

1. Belsley, Scott. An Introduction to Traditional Chinese Medicine, http://www.laparoscopic.md/introduction-traditional-chinese-medicine, accessed 18 January 2018.
2. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Traditional Chinese Medicine: In Depthhttps://nccih.nih.gov/health/whatiscam/chinesemed.htm#intro, accessed 18 January 2018.
3. Hunter, Amy. What is Western Medicine?, http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-western-medicine.htm, accessed 19 January 2018.
4. Ehrlich, Steven Traditional Chinese Medicine, https://www.umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/treatment/traditional-chinese-medicine accessed 19 January 2018
5. Rational Wiki. Western Medicinehttps://rationalwiki.org/wiki/Western_medicine%3E, accessed 20 January 2018.
6. W, Raine-Monet. Perspectives on Western Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine http://www.sasmicrocampus.org/projects/blogs/5901/students, accessed 21 January 2018.
7. Foreign Language Press, Practical Traditional Chinese Medicine, http://www.china.org.cn/english/MATERIAL/185381.htm#32 accessed 22 January 2018 
8. Palmer, James. Traditional Chinese Medicine Needs its Own Revolution https://aeon.co/essays/traditional-chinese-medicine-needs-its-own-revolution, accessed 25 January 2018.
9. Novella, Steve What is Traditional Chinese Medicine? https://sciencebasedmedicine.org/what-is-traditional-chinese-medicine/, accessed 26 January 2018. 
10. Mr. Tafel Personal interview conducted by Austin Zheng, 13 March 2018
11. Ms. Mai. Personal interview conducted by Austin Zheng, 13 March 2018 
12. Mr. Chen. Personal interview conducted by Austin Zheng, 13 March 2018
13. Peter Chen. Personal interview conducted by Austin Zheng, 13 March 2018
14. Ms. Li. Personal interview conducted by Austin Zheng, 13 March 2018
15. Peter Chen. Personal interview conducted by Austin Zheng, 16 March 2018
16. Ms. Linden. Personal interview conducted by Austin Zheng, 19 March 2018
17. Mr. Linden. Personal interview conducted by Austin Zheng, 19 March 2018
18. Mr. Yang. Personal interview conducted by Austin Zheng, 20 March 2018
19. Mr. Yang. Personal interview conducted by Austin Zheng, 20 March 2018
20. Mr. Peng. Personal interview conducted by Austin Zheng, 21 March 2018
21. Mr. Dong. Personal interview conducted by Austin Zheng, 26 March 2018
22. Mr. Li. Personal interview conducted by Austin Zheng, 27 March 2018
23. Mr. Xu Personal interview conducted by Austin Zheng, 27 March 2018
 

In this Phase, I have been collecting information from multiple different sources to further my understanding of my topic. I am now ready to prepare and work on a final project with my 10 big questions answered, also I have collected even more information which I have also sorted into different categories. In the next phase, Phase 4, I will be planning on exactly how I want to present all of this information through my final inquiry project!

 

Comments

You made pretty good progress

You made pretty good progress by collecting first-hand information. Since many traditional medicine receipes are secretive, you might focus more on basic ingredients, and try to find out some correlations later on.

Herbal Remedies

Have you considered talking to some of the people who sell herbs and various products just along the streets of the village who may claim certain benefits from the plants that they're selling? Ex. they might be selling a certain dried plant that they claim will help with the heart, where did they get that information? Is it just a marketing scam? Do people actually believe it?

Dr. Yang is currently

Dr. Yang is currently practicing medicine, and his opinion reveals more realistic view in daily operation. He could provide valuable input to your research through practical feedback, instead of theoritical one. You really break through some barriers.

After Microcampus, my life has been greatly affected by the new and different experiences that were offered during Microcampus. From being able to work efficiently and effectively to having meaningful conversations with (at first) strangers around me. I know understand the difference between "giving" and "trading" and the awareness of impact. How that perhaps people in need aren't necessarily always wanting gifts, but instead a trade, a bond, an understanding between two drastically different people. I also realized how much could be gained from just viewing the world around us and not just our smartphones and computers. For once, I noticed how the buildings were set up in a certain way or how some certain art was covered, I feel this type of education has been more effective than any other program I have ever tried out.